The Fractionation Methods of Palm Oil
Palm oil is a tropical woody vegetable oil. It is the world’s largest vegetable oil variety with the largest amount of production, consumption and international trade. It is also called “the world’s three major vegetable oils” with soybean oil and rapeseed oil. It has more than 5,000 years.
Palm oil contains 4% to 8% of diglyceride, which forms a eutectic mixture with triglyceride, which lowers the solid phase content and causes the crystallization rate of the oil to slow down. The content of monoglycosides in palm oil is less than 1%, so it has no significant effect on the crystallization of palm oil. Palm oil triglycerides have isomers, and there are several crystals thereof. The stability and melting point of these crystal forms are increased once. When the palm oil is cooled, the first crystal obtained is an α-form crystal, which is then converted into a β’-type and a β-form crystal at a time. In order to obtain a good separation effect, it is desirable to obtain a β’ type because the β’ type has a large and hard crystal, which is advantageous for filtration separation. The cooling rate affects the formation of crystal nuclei and the growth of crystals. When the temperature is low enough (32 ° C ~ 36 ° C), saturated triglycerides will crystallize. These crystals become crystal nuclei for further crystallization of low-melting-point fats, thereby forming large crystals, and a slow cooling rate and an appropriate stirring speed are necessary for obtaining an ideal crystal.
By controlling the cooling crystallization process of palm oil and separating it, the palm oil is separated into a low-melting liquid phase (soft fat) and a high-melting-point solid phase (hard fat) oil composition and isomer separation. The palm oil is extracted into two parts of a solid fat having a higher melting point and a liquid oil having a lower melting point by a method of crystallizing and fractionating. Solid fat can be used to make margarine, shortening and soap, etc. Liquid oil can be used to make frying oil, cooking oil and cold oil.
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